Gears are the main basic components in the machinery manufacturing industry. Mechanical parts that rely on the meshing of teeth to transmit torque can realize the functions of changing the rotational speed and torque by cooperating with other toothed mechanical parts.
However, for the manufacturing process of high-precision gears, especially the gears with many teeth, large diameter, long tooth surface and high precision requirements, strict process guarantee is required in the rolling process, and all links such as tooth blank, clamp, cutter, machine tool and cutting oil must be well controlled.
The following yixin precision metal and plastic ltd briefly introduces the following common gear manufacturing process principles:
I. Selection of Materials for Gear Manufacturing
Common steels used for manufacturing gears include quenched and tempered steel, hardened steel, carburized hardened steel and nitriding steel.
(1) The strength of cast steel is slightly lower than that of forged steel, which is commonly used for gears with larger sizes;
(2) Gray cast iron has poor mechanical properties and can be used for light load open gears;
(3) Ductile iron can partially replace steel to make gears;
Second, the gear cutting process principle
(1) Hobbing is to manufacture gears according to the principle of generating method. It is a process of meshing and rolling of a pair of staggered helical gear pairs. Its helix angle is very large → worm → slotting and backhoe → hob connects the hob spindle with the operating table with a chain, and the cutter-workpiece → conjugate tooth surface; Axial feed of hob → forming involute tooth profile.
(2) Gear shaping is to use gear-shaped gear shaping cutter or rack-shaped comb cutter to cut teeth. When the gear shaper is used to cut teeth, the chain of the machine tool causes the gear shaper to interact with the workpiece, and the tooth shape of the gear is accurately enveloped.
(3) There are two methods of tooth planing: profiling and generating. The profiling method is to use a profiling tool that enlarges the profile to cut the profile by controlling the tip trajectory of a single-edge planing tool. The generating method is to use a pair of planers to plane the two sides of the gear teeth respectively.
Three, gear manufacturing equipment types
(1) Hobbing machines use hobs to produce coarse, fine straight teeth, helical teeth, herringbone gears and worm wheels, etc. according to the generating method, which can achieve higher precision and efficiency;
(2) The gear shaper uses a gear shaper to cut straight teeth, helical teeth and other toothed parts according to the generating method, and is mainly used for multiple gears and internal gears;
(3) The gear milling machine is to use the forming milling cutter to mill according to the indexing method, and is mainly used for instrument gears with special tooth profiles;
(4) The gear shaving machine is an efficient machine tool that uses gear shaving knives to fine-tune gears.
(5) The gear grinding machine is a high-precision machine tool that uses grinding wheels to finely harden the tooth surfaces of cylindrical gears or gear cutters.
(6) gear honing machine is a machine tool that uses the free meshing of honing wheel and gear to eliminate burrs and other tooth surface defects of hardened gear.
(7) The tooth extruding machine is a machine tool that uses the free engagement of the high-hardness non-cutting edge extruding wheel and the workpiece to grind out the tiny unevenness on the tooth surface to improve the accuracy and smoothness.
These are the technological principles of gear manufacturing. Reasonable selection of gear manufacturing equipment can effectively reduce investment and improve efficiency.
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