Lathe tools are no longer satisfied with rough tools that can realize basic cutting, but tools with reasonable composition
, exquisite workmanship, excellent performance and convenient use. The performance of tools used by different equipment is different. Now let's take a closer look.
I. Common Types of Tool Materials
(1) Alloy tool steel:
with high thermal hardness, it is commonly used to manufacture low-speed tools with complex shapes, such as reamers, taps and dies.
(2) High-speed tool steel:
its high-temperature hardness and wear resistance are better than alloy tool steel. Due to its good heat treatment performance, high strength and good sharpening degree, it is widely used in manufacturing various machine tools such as forming turning tools, milling cutters, drill bits and broaches.
(3) Hard alloy:
alloy made of tungsten carbide, titanium carbide, cobalt and other materials by powder metallurgy. Hard alloy blades are usually fixed on the cutter body for use. At present, hard alloy has become one of the main cutter materials.
Second, the lathe cutting common problems
(1) Process hardening
During the cutting process of the tool, the surface hardness of the workpiece is improved due to the influence of high temperature and high pressure of the tool and chips, which is called hardening. The main influencing factor is the fillet of the cutting edge of the tool.
(2) residual area
When turning an excircle on a lathe, the area of the cutting layer that remains on the surface and is not cut off is called the residual area. Usually, the residual area height is used to measure the degree of uncleanness.
(3) debris tumor
The debris tumor is the accumulation on the tip of the knife. Under high temperature and high pressure, the part of the chip that contacts the rake face of the tool forms a retention layer due to the influence of friction force, and some materials in the retention layer will adhere to the rake face of the tool tip near the tool to form a chip accumulation tumor.
(4) Scaly thorn
The cause of scale stab is that there is a large extrusion force and friction force between the rake face and the chips. The chips are temporarily bonded to the rake face and replace the rake face to push the cutting layer, causing the chips and the surface to lead to crack. The rake face continues to push the cutting layer, and more and more cutting layers are piled up. Scaly spines produce flaky burrs on the surface. The appearance of this phenomenon makes the surface roughness decrease significantly.
(5) Vibration ripple
Under the condition of insufficient rigidity of tools, workpieces, machine tools or components, the occurrence of runout is called vibration, especially when the cutting depth is large or debris accumulation tumor is constantly disappearing. Longitudinal or transverse ripples appear on the surface of the workpiece, which obviously reduces the surface smoothness.
Chafing is when turning, the chips are wound on the surface of the workpiece, thus causing scratches, burrs, etc.
(7) Bright Spots and Bands
After severe friction and extrusion due to the wear of the flank, the surface forms lumpy or banded bright blocks. In addition, when the precision of the machine tool is low, such as spindle runout and uneven feed, the surface quality of the workpiece will also be reduced.
These are the common problems in lathe cutting technology. With the wide use of new technology, it provides a broad prospect for automobile manufacturing, mechanical equipment, instrumentation and other industries.
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Source of this article:https://ympcnc.com/